What are the parts of a speaker?
Knowing what goes into a speaker is crucial since it enables one to compare various speaker parameters. Understanding the inner workings of a speaker gives you more information that can be shown visually, such as the relative importance of its many components.
The driver is the heart of a speaker since it is responsible for converting the line-level electricity from your amplifier into sound waves that the human ear can perceive.
1. The Cone
In a speaker, the cone functions as a diaphragm that is connected to the voice coil. When the voice coil rotates, it pushes air around inside the cone, which has a larger surface area. Carbon fiber, paper, black polypropylene, titanium, aluminum, phenolic, granite, magnesium, fiberglass, kevlar, ceramic, and several other materials can all be used to make the cone's body.
The diaphragm is responsible for transforming mechanical energy into audible vibrations.
3. Voice Coil
It is an electromagnet made of copper wire that transfers the current through the coil to move the cone. Whether it's aluminum, Nomex, Kapton, or something else, the voice coil consists of windings wound around a cylindrical shape. Wrapped wire can be either flat or round. Values of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, and 32 ohms are specified as nominal impedances.
4. Dust Cap
A speaker's dust cap is a diaphragm that shields the voice coil and other moving parts from the outside environment. It can be crafted from a variety of materials, including aluminum, paper, felt, screen, rubber, and polypropylene.
The spider, a piece of treated paper coated with adhesive glue that sits inside the speaker and serves to align the voice coil in a proper manner.
It is the supporting ring between the cone and the basket, and it can be made of foam, poly-foam, accordion, butyl, a single piece of cloth, or an "m" roll of cloth.
7. Driver Diaphragm
An acoustic spider suspension and a flexible surround hold the driver diaphragm in place within the metal basket.
8. The Basket
The aluminum or plastic basket is the framework that shields the internal components and provides structural reinforcement to prevent further distortion.
Consists of foam, rubber, or chipboard. The gasket's primary role is to dampen vibrations sent from the driver to the housing.
Materials from the family of metals known as ferromagnetic metals are used to construct the magnet. These metals are distinguished by their ability to take on a magnetic state. The magnet is the large bulk in the rear of a speaker.
The assembly as a whole is unrestricted in its ability to move in response to the electric signal that causes the voice coil to vibrate. Air in the space is displaced, resulting in audible vibrations.
Whatever source cables link to the voice coil at the device's input.
What are the main types of speakers?
If you were asked to envision speaker parts, you'd probably think of a loudspeaker; they've been around for decades and are still the standard for audio reproduction due to their versatility. Surround sound speakers are a small twist on the basic floor standing or bookshelf loudspeaker.
Subwoofers are loudspeakers that reproduce low-frequency audio, such as movie bass and music bass. General loudspeakers don't cater to low frequencies, so a dedicated subwoofer is needed.
3. Bookshelf Speakers
Bookshelf speakers are better for smaller settings than tower speakers. They're smaller and have a tweeter and woofer or midrange driver. There are 3-way bookshelf speakers with each driver.
4. Tower/floor standing speakers
Large speakers are louder, but their size doesn't affect sound quality. Floor-standing speakers can produce more bass due to their larger cones.
5. Satellite Speakers
Satellite speakers lie behind or to the side of your listening location. Like bookshelf speakers, they have two cones, a tweeter, and half driver or woofer. These are used as a stereo pair, however, they usually complement other speakers.
6. Center-channel Speakers
Most surround sound systems include center-channel speakers. Between the left and right speakers. Home theater speakers sit below the screen.
7. Built-in Speakers
Built-in speakers provide high-quality audio without clutter. Built-in speakers are hidden in the ceiling or wall, whereas most speakers are constructed into speaker cabinets.
8. In-wall Speakers
In-wall speakers operate as back surround speakers, providing a completely immersive experience without speaker wires or power connections.
9. In-ceiling Speakers
In-ceiling speakers have a woofer and tweeter, like in-wall speakers. They're less effective than surround speakers because they're installed above the listening area.
How does the speaker work?
- A voltage output depicting the musical waveform initiates and begins to rise. When you connect the speaker's positive and negative terminals, electricity will begin to flow through the voice coil.
- The voice coil generates a magnetic field that is the same polarity as the permanent magnet in the speaker basket's metal enclosure. Keep in mind that unlike magnetic fields attract and like magnetic fields repel.
- As it moves forward, the cone/diaphragm builds up air pressure and produces sound.
- As the peak of the sine wave in the musical signal is reached, the electrical signal voltage rises, causing an increase in current and thus a stronger magnetic field produced by the voice coil.
- The result is a further expansion of the cone.
- After reaching its peak, the signal gradually decreases. Additionally, as the current decreases, the cone moves back toward its off (zero voltage) position
- When the voltage drops to zero, the cone returns to its original position.
- As the voltage of the electrical signal drops, the flow of information begins to reverse. When this happens, the magnetic field of the voice coil flips its polarity, with current flowing from the negative side to the positive.
- When the direction of the cone's motion is changed from rear to front to front to rear, it's because the voice coil's magnetic field is now opposite the permanent magnet that attracts it.
- As the signal continues, the cone will begin to move backward, generating the inverse of the air pressure waves.
- The voltage at the amp's or stereo's output goes back to zero before the next audio signal begins, and the cycle repeats itself.
What makes a speaker loud?
1. Watts & Sensitivity
The volume is proportional to the power going through your speakers when they are turned on and playing sound. Power and wattage will also come from the stereo receiver and amplifier of your sound system, assuming you have one.
Simply put, a stereo receiver is an amplifier with a radio built in that allows it to transmit and receive signals wirelessly.
The total decibel level will be the result of the sound system's power and wattage being added to the speaker's power (dB). SPL, or Sound Pressure Level, is a unit of measurement for loudness that is expressed in decibels (dB).
How well a speaker transfers the energy from an amplification circuit into audible sound is quantified by its sensitivity. The unit of measure for this is "decibels A," or dBA.
2. Speaker Size
The loudness of a speaker can be affected by its physical dimensions. When using older sound systems, the louder a speaker can get is proportional to its diameter. The maximum volume that can be emitted from speakers grows in direct proportion to their physical diameter.
3. Cone Reflex
Speakers frequently use a Kevlar cone. If the speaker cone is made of a resilient material like Kevlar, the reflected sound will bounce back. Resonance is created and bass frequencies can build up when sound waves bounce off surfaces in a small, tight area, which also increases the volume of a speaker.
Carpeting the interior and exterior of the enclosure help contain the speaker's sound and prevents it from seeping into unintended spaces. This effect can also be achieved with car door speakers or built-in wall speakers by adequately isolating the door or wall.
Since frequencies may build up inside a speaker's cabinet, this will also affect the speaker's volume.
A speaker's volume can also be affected by its placement and the angle at which it is positioned about the room's walls. A speaker's ability to fill a large room with sound is greatly enhanced if it is angled upward and/or outward, especially if the ceiling is high.
In contrast, if a speaker is pointed down at a wall or the floor, its sound will be significantly muffled due to its inability to project. A tiny, low-wattage speaker may nonetheless provide a respectable amount of noise if positioned and angled correctly.
FAQs: Speaker Parts
Question: What makes a good speaker sound?
Answer: Any effective speaker should be able to move you emotionally, compel you to pay attention, and inspire you to take some sort of positive action. Connectedness is key to becoming an effective public speaker, both inside and externally. When these factors are combined, the speaker comes across as authoritative and convincing.
Question: How many watts is a good speaker?
Answer: Between 15 and 30 watts is ideal for a household speaker. Twenty watts is usually enough for a home's needs. A speaker with a power rating of 50 or 100 watts is suitable for use in larger settings.