Introduction

A Lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery consists of four components: (i) the anode, (ii) the cathode, (iii) a permeable polyethylene or polypropylene separator between the electrodes, and (iv) an electrolyte that fills the space of the battery.  The electrolyte is a solution of Lithium hexafluorophosphate, a lithium salt, and additives. The electrodes are reactants in the electrochemical reactions, both of which contain compounds with Lithium ions.  The anode is made of a graphite compound, commonly a LiC6.

Cathode

  1. Lithium Cobalt Oxide
  2. Lithium Manganese Oxide
  3. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
  4. Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)
  5. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA)
  6. Lithium Titanate

Electrochemical reaction in a Li-ion battery

The electrochemical reaction in a Li-ion battery causes discharging and recharging/charging energy. With external electrical loading, a discharge circuit is created between the electrodes. Energy is discharged when the Lithium ions stored in the anode move through the electrolyte and separator to the cathode. However, discharging of energy has a limit where overloading on the battery can supersaturate the metal oxide leading to the formation of lithium oxide. In other words, the overall reaction during overloading causes an irreversible reaction where the metal ions cannot be oxidized for further discharging.

Is li-on a lithium battery?

A Li-ion battery is a secondary battery, which should not be confused with a lithium battery, a primary battery. It is possible to discharge and recharge energy storage in a secondary battery. During recharging, a current is introduced into this rechargeable Li-ion battery which due to the potential difference between the electrodes, the Lithium ions transfer back to the anode through the electrolyte for storage.

Lithium battery and Li-ion battery

Compared to Lithium batteries, Li-ion batteries self-discharge at a greater rate or shelf life is shorter. However, the choice of choosing either battery is the size of the battery package, easy transportation, and charger availability. Li-ion battery is lighter than any other secondary battery of the same size due to the carbon electrode. However, Lithium batteries are easier to manufacture, making Li-ion batteries more expensive. Based on capacity, the approximate Li-ion battery price is listed in Table 1.

Table 1: Approximate Li-ion battery price

Battery capacity

Approx. Price in INR (Estimated for June 2022)

6 Ah/75 Wh

3500

12 Ah/ 150 Wh

4500

20 Ah/ 250 Wh

6000

30 Ah/ 385 Wh

11550

40 Ah/ 500 Wh

15000

80 Ah/ 1000 Wh

24000

Top Lithium-Ion battery manufacturers in India

Li-ion battery is used in electronics, toys, wireless gadgets, handheld power tools, appliances, electric vehicles, and electrical energy storage units. 80% of Li-ion battery demand is contributed by the electric vehicles market. High oil prices have also invoked the idea of switching to green solutions for power backup, and power loading vehicles.

Even at the initial stage of this run to green technology development, India’s Li-ion battery market is expected to reach USD 4.86 billion with a cumulative annual growth rate of 17.35% for 2019-27. The most promising companies that will lead the market by 2027 and are targeted to be the top Li-ion battery manufacturers in India are discussed hereafter.

  1. Exide Industries Limited (EIL): Exide Industries Limited is India’s largest manufacturer and supplier of all kinds of batteries for the automotive industry, industrial sector, backup solutions, and solar solutions. Planned in 2020, the company has now begun manufacturing at India’s largest Li-ion battery plant in Gujarat. The subsidiary company was named Exide Leclanche Energy Private Limited, which is a joint venture with Leclanche SA, Switzerland. With its state-of-the-art R&D center, a 1.5 GWh capacity plant, and six assembling lines, the company provides energy storage systems for India’s electric vehicles and other grid-based applications under the brand “Nexcharge”. EIL has also entered into a multi-year agreement in 2022 with SVOLT Energy Technology Co. Ltd, a Chinese firm, that manufactures and commercialize Li-ion battery for electric vehicles and energy storage.
  2. TDS Lithium-Ion Battery Gujarat Private Ltd. (TDSG): TDSG is India’s first Li-ion battery manufacturing company which is jointly set up by TOSHIBA Corporation, Denso Corporation, and Suzuki Motor Corporation at an equity stake of Suzuki (50%), TOSHIBA (40%), and Denso (10%). To meet the demand of Suzuki Motors and Maruti-Suzuki, the battery manufacturing facility is a blend of Suzuki’s expertise in automobiles, cell technology of TOSHIBA, and module technology of Denso. About 180 USD has been invested between the three ventures and the facility is set up in Gujarat.
  3. ATL Battery Technology (India) Private Limited: Amperex Technology Ltd (ATL), a Japanese firm launched research centers in many global locations, which operates the simulation center and invents better green solutions in the world. In 2020, it acquired 180-acre land near Gurugram, Haryana. This industrial land procured from the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation is meant to invest in a battery manufacturing unit under the subsidiary company name, ATL Battery Technology (India) Private Limited. ATL is planning to invest ₹7000 crores in the next few years to supply Lithium-Ion Polymer (LIP) batteries for assembling into smartphones and two and three-wheeler electric vehicles.
  4. Li Energy: Li Energy customizes energy storage for mobility and energy storage purposes. It has the largest Li-ion battery facility in India, at a 1.2 GW annual production capacity. The battery specially customized as are prismatic-shaped Lithium Iron Phosphate battery. Lithium Iron Phosphate has better thermal and structural stability than other metal oxides. Along with batteries, the company manufactures boxes, cabinets, and containers for housing the battery packs.
  5. Amara Raja Batteries: Amara Raja Batteries is one of India’s largest manufacturers of lead-acid batteries for the automotive and industrial sectors. It is also one of the companies that are selected for receiving the Li-ion cell technology from ISRO. To capitalize on the fast-evolving trend of mobility and energy sectors, in 2021 it, therefore, committed to investing USD 1 billion in the next 5-7 years in green energy storage technologies, including Li-ion battery and lithium battery production expansion.
  6. HBL Power Systems Ltd.: HBL Power Systems Ltd. is organized into three domains: batteries, electronics, and ammunition for businesses in Railways, industrial electronics, electric mobility, power generation, power utilities, oil and gas, and renewable energy. Cutting the environmental burden of fossil fuel supply, the company ventured into the technology of e-mobility. Related products in this business include power training and technological development of motors, inverters, rechargeable batteries, and electric vehicle chargers. The Li-ion battery packs are the power source for electric vehicles, hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
  7. Tata Chemicals Limited: Tata Chemicals Limited is popular for the manufacture of ingredients for crop protection, glass, detergents, nutritional solutions, biscuits making, and bakery. Soda ash, caustic soda, sodium bicarbonate, crushed refined soda, bromine-based products, chlorine-based products, industrial salt, animal salt, livestock salt, and gypsum are the company's key products. In 2019, the company is one among the companies which ISRO awarded the indigenous technology of Li-ion battery manufacture.
  8. Panasonic Industries: Panasonic Industries’ product line includes electronic components and devices like batteries, industrial motors, compressors, and other electronic components for sectors of automotive, industrial, smart gadget technology, home, healthcare, and computing. The products are prismatic-type and cylindrical-shaped Li-ion batteries for high drain and high temperature, high capacity and high power, and general purposes. The company also manufactures pin-shaped lithium-ion batteries for wireless earphones, hearing aids, wristband active trackers, stylus, and smart glasses.
  9. Karacus Energy Pvt. Ltd.: Karacus Energy Pvt Ltd. is a professional Lithium battery and one of the leading Li-ion battery manufacturers and solution providers specializing in E-rickshaws. The company specializes in the manufacture of lithium batteries, solar batteries, electric vehicle batteries, and LFP batteries.
  10. Manikaran Power Ltd.: Although it is competitive to launch late for investing in Li-ion battery manufacturers, it didn’t alter the plan of Manikaran Power Ltd. to expand their manufacturing units accommodating a USD 300 million project scheduled to be commissioned by 2024-25. The manufacturing plants incorporate innovative technologies to produce the highest purity, battery-grade battery, which is also known as Lithium Hydroxide battery. The target market envisioned is the electric vehicle ecosystem.

Conclusion

The automobile industry's greater demand for replacing fossil fuel dependence with a green solution has promoted the country’s R&D, manufacture, and commercialization of Li-ion batteries for running electric vehicles and energy storing. With initiatives launched by the Government of India for indigenous development and foreign direct investment in manufacturing units, the future of this battery market is looking bright.

FAQs: Lithium Battery

Q. What is the difference between primary and secondary batteries?

Ans. A primary battery is single-use while a secondary battery is rechargeable.

Q. What are the advantages of a Li-ion battery over a lithium battery?

Ans. Advantages of Li-ion battery over lithium battery are resistance to many environmental conditions, rechargeable, and lighter.

Q. How can one choose a Li-ion battery?

Ans. Based on environmental conditions, load level, sizes, and shape of the battery a Li-ion battery is chosen.